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It is indeed clear that racism as an ideological construct is the primary cause of all forms of inequalities, including discrimination, segregation, exclusion, and exploration. According to the equality principles, it is required that all individuals who are equal should be treated equally basing on their similarities. The person’s race should not be considered in any treatment (Racial Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System, 2012). Equality should prevail in all aspects, for instance, in job promotions, hiring and paying. From the ideological perspective of racism, cultural background and a person’s biology are used to rationalize an individual significance as the dominant one. This notion should not be embraced because it always leads people astray.

According to Bethencourt (2014), it is evident that the systematic discrimination based on an individual’s descent arose not in the modern but in the ancient times. The heirs and successors carried the establishment of Latin Christians in the Mediterranean across the globe. It expanded and eventually was spread to other parts of the Atlantic, Asia, and Africa. After the spread, the high levels of discrimination and segregation on the basis of race were seen taking roots to the world. Nonetheless, racism was unevenly distributed with America taking the largest percentage. The aspect of the Europeans associating the black with filthiness, evil, and all the undesirable things represented racism at its worst.

Racism was also seen to curb egalitarianism especially in Europe after 1848. This fact can be justified from the paradox of extension of the democratic nationalism that provoked racism in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The political projects also promoted racism, as it can clearly be evident from the examples of the American genocide and the Jewish pogroms in Russia. This project clearly shows that racism indeed is promoted by the political projects and it can be catastrophic if not controlled (Bethencourt, 2014)



It is a planned form of massacre whereby the minority group is persecuted. This name originates from Russia, and it means to destroy by the kind of violence. For instance, Bethencourt (2014) provides good examples. First, it can be evident in the Jewish pogrom in Russia, where the Nazi racial state experienced the pogrom. Second, it is seen in the American genocide.


In the historical context, conversion is the act of shifting one’s belief from a particular faith to another. It can be a result of significant mission actions. For instance, in the book of Bethencourt (2014) the concept of conversion is evident when the Pope Pius II wrote a letter to Mehmed II requesting him to convert to Christianity and be given the title of emperor in exchange.


It is the belief that when an individual dies, his or her soul returns to life again in a different form. Most people, especially of the African origin believe in reincarnation, but research shows that Americans regard it as not compatible with their religious beliefs. For instance, people from Yoruba land in Africa, believed that reincarnation is intergenerational. Whenever a child was born after a death of the grandparent, the name would be ‘Babatunde’ to mean the father has returned. If the child were a girl, it would be ‘Yetunde’ meaning the mother has returned (Von Ward, 2008).


Enslavement is the use of slave servants for work. On the other hand, a slave is a servant who is the complete subject of the other person. In history, there have been many cases of enslavement, for instance, in the US Civil War case where the southern states relied heavily on slaves to work on their cotton farms. Enslavement can also be evident in Bethencourt’s work (2014), where about 12 million laborers were enslaved in Germany between the years 1939 and 1945. This figure can be compared to the number of Africans who were enslaved for more than 350 years in the Atlantic slave trade (Von Ward, 2008).


This act is considered as a form of representation whereby people, their cultural background, and origin are considered as alien from the intended audience perspective. It can also be described as an ingenious act that requires an accurate representation, classification, and perception on the part of the beholder. In Bethencourt’s book (2014), the aspect of exoticism can be seen from the European perception of black. For instance, in Europe the black color was perceived as sin, evil, filthiness, mourning, penitence, and ugliness (Bethencourt, 2014). When later the emperor gave this color a protected status, black people were viewed otherwise.

Universal Religion

Universal religion is the belief that all faiths are equally upright. It can be added that all the religions will take their particular believers to heaven. Given a chance, all individuals from different religions can defend themselves significantly. An element of universalism can be evident in Bethencourt’s book (2014), where the Roman church has believed in universalism and claimed that the Pope was the source of all human souls. Muslims, on the other hand, were busy converting the Jews to their religion. Christians are typical believers of universalism. In the Bible Galatians 3:28 “There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus” (The Holy Bible: King James Version, 2004).


Civilization is defined as an advanced form of humanity in which some race feels more superior in terms of development compared to others. The aspect of civilization can be evident when Europeans view themselves as superior and discriminating upon Africans viewed as ‘backward’ (Bethencourt, 2014).

Afonso of the Congo

Afonso I was one of the Congolese kings whose full name was Manikongo Afonso I. He is amongst the first kings that Europe recognized. Afonso I contributed to the spread of Christianity in his Kingdom, spearheaded by the Portuguese (Brockman, n.d).

Sexual Division of Labor

It is an aspect where economically, work is divided according to gender. For instance, in African culture where traditionally women were not allowed to do some work based on gender. Women’s primary responsibilities were preparing food and men’s role was providing for the family.

Caste System

It is a system of social stratification in Hindu, whereby distinctions were in the form of castes. In the caste system, people were depicted from the community they came from basing on cultural influence. Mobility from one caste to another was restricted.

Mughal Empire

This Empire came from two great lineages of rulers, who were the Genghis Khan of the mother who died in 1922. The father’s side was Timber who died in 1404. Their efficient military made the empire wealthy and powerful (Duiker & Spielvogel, 2013).

Marco Polo

Marco Polo was a Venetian who traveled across Asia, a distance comparable to the Mongol’s Empire. He was a famous man due to the long distance he traveled. His father and some of his uncles were also famous for traveling long distances in China (Marco Polo, n.d.).


The pagans, heathens, and infidels are those indigenous people who are non-Christians. In most cases, they are regarded as not existing. For example, during the spread of Christianity in by Portuguese in Cong King Alfonso disregarded all the pagans, heathens, and infidels.

Open/Closed Society

An open society is a type of society in history that is open to interaction, whereas the closed society is not open to interactions. In the open society, integration is easy and diversity can be evident. A good example of the open society in history is the society that embraces change, unlike the closed society.

Purity of Blood

Purity of blood was a compulsive concern that came in the 15th Century in Spain. This belief was propagated and the old Christians were said to have ‘impure blood’ due to their resistance to embracing Catholicism. This notion was because the Jews were believed to be the killers of Christ; therefore, their blood was impure (Duiker & Spielvogel 2013).

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