Comparative Demographic Study of Ghana and Australia
Demography is the study of the statistics of the human population in a country. It shows the size, distribution of the population and the structure of this population. Ghana is a West African country and has a population of about 24 million people. Australia is a continent on its own, and it has a population of about 23 million. This paper will compare the difference in the demographics between Ghana and Australia.
Ghana has many different cultures and ethnic groups. These groups include Akan, Hausa, Ewe, and Yoruba among others. There is a small population of Britons and Americans who came in during the colonization eras, and some are missionaries. According to the census taken in the year 2010, Ghana has a population that is mainly Christians. The Muslims make up a percentage of about 15 of the general population that is according to the census, but other sources may differ. Other religions that are practiced include Judaism that is mainly practiced by the Sefwi people. Nichiren Buddhists and Baha’is also make up a small religious population in the country. The population in this country over the last decade grew by 1.897%. The experts project that, by 2025, the population will grow to 35 million (Nwauche, 2010). The infant mortality rate now stands at 51.09 deaths over 1000 live births, which is an improvement from the previous 57.43 deaths over 1000 live births that were estimated in the year 2000. The fertility rate is now averaging at 3.57 born per woman over the previous 3.95 births per woman. This will definitely defend the projection of 35 million in the year 2025. A couple of factors have encouraged this growth which includes, better vaccination against the common diseases, improved nutritional education and improved healthcare facilities around the country (Glover-Amengor, Owusu & Akanmori, 2005). There is also a large population of young people in Ghana who make up the larger labor force in the country. The government of Ghana has ensured that primary and junior school education is free thus increasing the literacy levels of this country.
Australia is estimated to have a population of about 23 million. Its population is very diverse and is constituted by people from different backgrounds and cultures. Australia has many immigrants’ from different countries, and it also has natives who have intermarried with people from other countries thus making the cultural background of the country very complex. Australia does not have an official religion mandated by the law due to its diversity. Christians make up most of the population with the Roman Catholics being highly predominant followed by the Anglican religion. Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism, Judaism, and Sikhism are some of the other religions practiced by the people of Australia. The population of Australia has been increasing steadily at the rate of 1.7 as of the year 2012. According to the statistics department in Australia, the population of Australia will decline due to different factors such as the aging of the population. Despite some challenges, the fertility rate grew to 1.81 one of the highest that has been recorded in that country. This was accredited to the fact that the government-held federal campaigns on fertility. The death rate has reduced from 12.2 deaths per 1000 to 6.4 deaths per 1000 as of 2006. The infant mortality rate is 4.75 deaths to 1000 live births while the life expectancy at birth is 81.63 years. The total fertility rate for every woman is estimated at 1.969 children. This is attributed to the fact that many Austrians prefer having small families (Taylor, 2009). The population is largely full of older people, and the literacy levels are very high with many Austrians having cleared their high school education.
These two countries can be compared in many ways due to their similarities and differences. Their populations are almost similar to Ghana’s population being a bit more numerous than Australia. Despite this, it can be observed that, in both countries, Christianity is the most predominant religion, and all the other religions are considered minorities. Both cultures are very diverse. The disparities between these two countries precede their similarities. The literacy rates of Ghana are lower than the numbers associated with Australia. This is because Australia was urbanized at an earlier stage than Ghana. Ghana, through its government, has improved their education system by making their primary and junior schools free, but some of its population cannot afford to go to the secondary schools. This has caused a reduction in their literacy levels. The population of Ghana is full of young people, and Australia’s population is full of old and aged people. Ghana has a fertility rate of 3.57 while Australia has a fertility rate of 1.969. In Ghana, this is caused by the increase in vaccination campaigns while in Australia the government is trying to encourage its population to increase their fertility rates through bonuses.
In conclusion, these two countries despite being in two different parts of the world can still share some similarities. Their populations and religious diversities show us their great resemblance. Moreover, every similarity has to have a disparity, and this can be seen in their mortality rates, literacy levels, life expectancy rate, and growth rates. The governments of these two countries are working hard to ensure their population is maintained and controlled. Ghana is trying to control its population while Australia is trying to maintain or increase it. The differences and similarities between the two countries clearly show how independent they are and how their demographies affect their populations.